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Table 1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and clinical-nutritional characteristics of infants.

Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers and clinical-nutritional characteristics of healthy infants (n = 155) attended at two Primary Health Care Units of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2014–2015.

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Most infants were exposed to the sun before 10:00 AM or after 3:00 PM, for more than 15 minutes, often less than three times a week and wore clothing that left legs and arms exposed.

Data related to the infant's sun exposure are shown in Table 2 .

Table 2. Sun exposure of healthy infants (n = 155) attended at two Primary Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2014–2015.

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Ten (6%; 95% confidence interval– 95%CI:3.5 to 11.4) infants had serum concentrations of 25(OH)D considered deficient and 46 (30%; 95%CI: 16.4 to 42.8) insuficient. Ninety-nine infants (64%; 95% confidence interval–CI: 54.4 to 73.3) had adequate serum concentrations of 25(OH)D.

Serum concentrations of Ca, P and albumin were under normal range; only one male infant had elevated serum PTH levels, and he presented with insufficient 25(OH)D concentration (23.5ng/ml); 35% (55/155) of the infants had high AP, and 56% (31/55) of them were under one year of age; among infants with elevated serum concentrations of AP, 93% (51/55) were had normal nutritional status and none presented deficient serum concentrations of 25(OH)D but 40% (22/55) presented insufficiency.

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shows mean and standard deviations of serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, PTH, Ca, P, AP and albumin of the evaluated infants.

Table 3. Serum concentrations of calcidiol [25(OH)D], parathormne, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and albumin of healthy infants attended at two Primary Health Care Units in Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2014–2015.

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There was a weak inverse correlation between serum concentrations of log 10 25(OH)D and log 10 PTH in the infants [parameter estimate (95%CI) = -0.63 (-0.99; -0.28); p-value < 0.01)], even after adjustment for covariates (sex, age and BMI). However, a plateau of serum PTH levels was not observed when concentrations of 25(OH)D reached 20ng/ml or 30ng/ml, as shown in Fig 1 .

Fig 1. Linear association between serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and PTH in healthy infants attended at two Primary Health Care Units in Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2014–2015.

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Specifically, the process of randomly assigning a large number of individuals to either an intervention group or a control group ensures, to a high degree of confidence, that there are no systematic differences between the groups in any characteristics (observed and unobserved) except one - namely, the intervention group participates in the intervention, and the control group does not. Therefore - assuming the trial is properly carried out (per the guidelines below) - the resulting difference in outcomes between the intervention and control groups can confidently be attributed to the intervention and not to other factors.

1. "Pre-post" study designs often produce erroneous results.

A"pre-post" study examines whether participants in an intervention improve or regress during the course of the intervention, and then attributes any such improvement or regression to the intervention.

The problem with this type of study is that, without reference to a control group, it cannot answer whether the participants' improvement or decline would have occurred anyway, even without the intervention. This often leads to erroneous conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

A randomized controlled trial of Even Start - a federal program designed to improve the literacy of disadvantaged families - found that the program had no effect on improving the school readiness of participating children at the 18th-month follow-up. Specifically, there were no significant differences between young children in the program and those in the control group on measures of school readiness including the Picture Peabody Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and PreSchool Inventory.


, the study would have concluded erroneously that the program was effective in increasing school readiness. This is because the children in the program and those in the control group showed improvement in school readiness during the course of the program (e.g., both groups of children improved substantially in their national percentile ranking on the PPVT). A pre-post study would have attributed the participants' improvement to the program whereas in fact it was the result of other factors, as evidenced by the equal improvement for children in the control group.

A randomized controlled trial of the Summer Training and Education Program - a Labor Department pilot program that provided summer remediation and work experience for disadvantaged teenagers - found that program's short-term impact on participants' reading ability was positive. Specifically, while the reading ability of the control group members eroded by a full grade-level during the first summer of the program, the reading ability of participants in the program eroded by only a half grade-level.

, the study would have concluded erroneously that the program was harmful. That is, the study would have found a decline in participants' reading ability and attributed it to the program. In fact, however, the participants' decline in reading ability was the result of other factors - such as the natural erosion of reading ability during the summer vacation months - as evidenced by the even greater decline for members of the control group.

Updated on February 05, 2018

Whenever you save a page or post in WordPress it creates a revision . This occurs in both drafts and already published posts that are updated.Revisions can be helpful in case you need to revert back to a previous version of your content. However, they can also hurtthe performance of your WordPress site. On large sites this can add up very quickly to thousands of rows in your database which are not necessarily needed. And the more rows you have the larger your database in size, which takes up storage space . Follow the steps below on how to delete, limit, and disable WordPress revisions for faster performance.

Optimize WordPress Revisions

It is not uncommon for older sites to have 100+ revisions on their main pages. This is simply due to years of editing and updating content. Let’s say for example a site has 700 pages or posts with150 revisions on each, this would be over 100,000 entries in the database. This happens a lot more frequently than you might think. Thankfully, there are a couple easy optimizations you can make to ensure this doesn’t hurt the performance of your site.

If you are starting a new site, you can skip to the Trask Mens Denton Driving Shoe With Genuine Shearling LDJuwjMPI
as you won’t have existing revisions. If you are on an older site, the first thing you will probably want to do is cleanup and delete the hundreds or thousands ofWordPress revisions. This is where a lot of the magic happens, and you can free up space in your database. If you are trying to do this with a MySQL query, be very careful as there are a lot of Faith BENNY Classic ankle boots near black dptD8VYgE
floating around the WordPress repository forums with bad information. Many suggest queries that sometimes delete a relationship needed to make dashboardlinks work.

We recommend using the free Dolce amp; GabbanaVarnished loafers pknZmpF
plugin. It uses the built-in WordPress term functions, which is the correct way to do things. We don’t recommend the WP Optimize plugin, even though it is very popular. Itis on our banned list of plugins as it has been known to cause issues for some Kinsta users.

Running any type of database plugin could break your site if not done correctly. We always recommend backing up your MySQL database beforehand. If you are not comfortable doing this, please check with a developer first.

Step 1

Download and install the free Optimize Database after Deleting Revisions plugin. As of writing this, the plugin has over 90,000 active installs with a 4.8 out of 5 rating. You can download itfrom the WordPress repository or by searching for it within your WordPress dashboard under “Add New” plugins.

Step 2

Click into the plugin settings of “Optimize Database” and input the date of the time for which you want to delete revisions. In our example, we did any revisions that are older than 1 day. Below, select the “check all tables,” which will exclude them from being optimized.We are not wanting to do anything else in this tutorial other than delete revisions, we will dive into optimization in another tutorial. Scroll down and click on “Go to Optimizer.”

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Research Article
Distinct centromere domain structures with separate functions demonstrated in live fission yeast cells
Henrik Appelgren , Barbara Kniola , Karl Ekwall
J Cell Sci 2003 116: 4035-4042; doi:10.1242/jcs.00707
Henrik Appelgren
Barbara Kniola
Karl Ekwall

This article has a correction. Please see:

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Fission yeast ( Saccharomyces pombe ) centromere DNA is organized in a central core region flanked on either side by a region of outer repeat ( otr ) sequences. The otr region is known to be heterochromatic and bound by the Swi6 protein whereas the central core region contains an unusual chromatin structure involving the histone H3 variant Cnp1 ( S. pombe CENP-A). The central core is the base for formation of the kinetochore structure whereas the flanking region is important for sister centromere cohesion. We have previously shown that the ultrastructural domain structure of S. pombe centromeres in interphase is similar to that of human centromeres. Here we demonstrate that S. pombe centromeres are organized in cytologically distinct domains even in mitosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of fixed metaphase cells revealed that the otr regions of the centromere were still held together by cohesion even after the sister kinetochores had separated. In live cells, the central cores and kinetochores of sister chromosomes could be distinguished from one another when they were subjected to mitotic tension. The function of the different centromeric domains was addressed. Transacting mutations affecting the kinetochore ( nuf2 ) central core domain ( mis6 ) and the heterochromatin domain ( rik1 ) were analyzed in live cells. In interphase, both nuf2 and mis6 caused declustering of centromeres from the spindle pole body whereas centromere clustering was normal in rik1 despite an apparent decondensation defect. The declustering of centromeres in mis6 cells correlated with loss the Ndc80 kinetochore marker protein from the centromeres. Interestingly the declustered centromeres were still restricted to the nuclear periphery thus revealing a kinetochore-independent peripheral localization mechanism for heterochromatin. Time-lapse microscopy of live mis6 and nuf2-1 mutant cells in mitosis showed similar severe misaggregation phenotypes whereas the rik1 mutants showed a mild cohesion defect. Thus, S. pombe centromeres have two distinguishable domains even during mitosis, and our functional analyses support the previous observations that the kinetochore/central core and the heterochromatin domains have distinct functions both in interphase and mitosis.

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