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Managing Oneself
From the November 2007 Issue
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Executive Summary

Reprint: R0711F

Executing complex initiatives like acquisitions or an IT overhaul requires a breadth of knowledge that can be provided only by teams that are large, diverse, virtual, and composed of highly educated specialists. The irony is, those same characteristics have an alarming tendency to decrease collaboration on a team. What’s a company to do?

Gratton, a London Business School professor, and Erickson, president of the Concours Institute, studied 55 large teams and identified those with strong collaboration despite their complexity. Examining the team dynamics and environment at firms ranging from Royal Bank of Scotland to Nokia to Marriott, the authors isolated eight success factors: (1) that build bonds among the staff, in memorable ways that are particularly suited to a company’s business. (2) among executives, which help cooperation trickle down to the staff. (3) in which managers support employees by mentoring them daily, instead of a transactional “tit-for-tat culture.” (4) , such as communication and conflict resolution. (5) , which corporate HR can foster by sponsoring group activities. (6) , or leaders who are both task-oriented and relationship-oriented. (7) , by populating teams with members who know and trust one another. (8) , achieved by defining individual roles sharply but giving teams latitude on approach.

As teams have grown from a standard of 20 members to comprise 100 or more, team practices that once worked well no longer apply. The new complexity of teams requires companies to increase their capacity for collaboration, by making long-term investments that build relationships and trust, and smart near-term decisions about how teams are formed and run.

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To execute major initiatives in your organization—integrating a newly acquired firm, overhauling an IT system—you need complex teams. Such teams’ defining characteristics—large, virtual, diverse, and specialized—are crucial for handling daunting projects. Yet these very characteristics can also destroy team members’ ability to work together, say Gratton and Erickson. For instance, as team size grows, collaboration diminishes.

To maximize your complex teams’ effectiveness, construct a basis for collaboration in your company. Eight practices hinging on relationship building and cultural change can help. For example, create a strong sense of community by sponsoring events and activities that bring people together and help them get to know one another. And use informal mentoring and coaching to encourage employees to view interaction with leaders and colleagues as valuable.

When executives, HR professionals, and team leaders all pitch in to apply these practices, complex teams hit the ground running—the day they’re formed.

The Idea in Practice

The authors recommend these practices for encouraging collaboration in complex teams:

What Executives Can Do


Royal Bank of Scotland’s CEO commissioned new headquarters built around an indoor atrium and featuring a “Main Street” with shops, picnic spaces, and a leisure club. The design encourages employees to rub shoulders daily, which fuels collaboration in RBS’s complex teams.


At Standard Chartered Bank, top executives frequently fill in for one another, whether leading regional celebrations, representing SCB at key external events, or initiating internal dialogues with employees. They make their collaborative behavior visible through extensive travel and photos of leaders from varied sites working together.


At Nokia, each new hire’s manager lists everyone in the organization the newcomer should meet, suggests topics he or she should discuss with each person on the list, and explains why establishing each of these relationships is important.

What HR Can Do


Marriott has recognized the anniversary of the company’s first hotel opening by rolling back the cafeteria to the 1950s and sponsoring a team twist dance contest.

What Team Leaders Can Do


When Nokia needs to transfer skills across business functions or units, it moves entire small teams intact instead of reshuffling individual people into new positions.

When tackling a major initiative like an acquisition or an overhaul of IT systems, companies rely on large, diverse teams of highly educated specialists to get the job done. These teams often are convened quickly to meet an urgent need and work together virtually, collaborating online and sometimes over long distances.

UC Santa Cruz

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Home / About / What is Linguistics?

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Each human language is a complex of knowledge and abilities enabling speakers of the language to communicate with each other, to express ideas, hypotheses, emotions, desires, and all the other things that need expressing. Linguistics is the study of these knowledge systems in all their aspects: how is such a knowledge system structured, how is it acquired, how is it used in the production and comprehension of messages, how does it change over time? Linguists consequently are concerned with a number of particular questions about the nature of language. What properties do all human languages have in common? How do languages differ, and to what extent are the differences systematic, i.e. can we find patterns in the differences? How do children acquire such complete knowledge of a language in such a short time? What are the ways in which languages can change over time, and are there limitations to how languages change? What is the nature of the cognitive processes that come into play when we produce and understand language?

The part of linguistics that is concerned with the structure of language is divided into a number of subfields:

Aside from language structure, other perspectives on language are represented in specialized or interdisciplinary branches:

Because language is such a central feature of being a human, Linguistics has intellectual connections and overlaps with many other disciplines in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. Some of the closest connections are with Philosophy, Literature, Language Pedagogy, Psychology, Sociology, Physics (acoustics), Biology (anatomy, neuroscience), Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Health Sciences (Aphasia, Speech Therapy).

The main purpose of the study of Linguistics in an academic environment is the advancement of knowledge. However, because of the centrality of language in human interaction and behavior, the knowledge gained through the study of linguistics has many practical consequences and uses. Graduates of undergraduate and graduate programs in Linguistics apply their training in many diverse areas, including language pedagogy, speech pathology, speech synthesis, natural language interfaces, search engines, machine translation, forensics, naming, and of course all forms of writing, editing, and publishing. Perhaps the most widely appreciated application was contributed by UCSC Linguistics alumnus Marc Okrand, who invented the Klingon language for Star Trek.

Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics
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June 18, 2018 at 10:52 am

No surprise to me. Any device or service offered by Google, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter is always a privacy suspect. It is what they do.

June 18, 2018 at 3:42 pm


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You could use a Guest Wifi network for IoT devices instead of 2 routers. Better still is to prevent guest devices from being able to see each other. Not sure which, if any, routers offer that as a feature. Netgear used to offer it. Found this,

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about a router that definitely can keep devices on the LAN from seeing each other

June 18, 2018 at 11:59 am

Netgear still utilizes guest networks on their latest routers, but I’m just so tired of their ‘Netgear Genie’ GUI for router configuration, but I guess it fits the needs I require for my small home network.

June 18, 2018 at 12:23 pm

Mis-understanding. I was referring to isolating guest users from each other. I found this discussion about how Netgear changed their software in this regard:

“One complaint we’ll make about the guest network feature on the Nighthawk X6 that we also made about the original Nighthawk is that the guest network option for network isolation and local network access is the same toggle labeled “allow guests to see each other and access the local network.” Yet in older Netgear routers we’ve owned/tested the option was split into “allow guests to access my local network” and “enable wireless isolation.” There are numerous, and perfectly valid, reasons for wanting to enable one and not the other (e.g. your kids want to play network games with their friends on the guest network so network isolation must be disabled, but you don’t want them to access to your LAN) and there’s no good reason why the settings aren’t more granular on such a high-end router.”

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The chromecast was designed to work primarily from the same network as the “controlling” device.

It does have a guest mode for mobile devices not on the network where you use a direct wifi connection to control it, but not direct stream, and the mobile device has to have it’s own internet connection.

Chromecast does not work with wifi port isolation or between a wifi guest segment and the main segment.

Search the Lipid Library

In This Section

Home > Oils Fats

In This Section

The Author

Jean Louis Sébédio William W. Christie

UMR 1019, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Plateforme d’exploration du métabolisme, INRA centre de Theix, 63122 St Genes Champanelle, France Brief Biography Jean Louis Sébédio James Hutton Institute (and Mylnefield Lipid Analysis), Invergowrie, Dundee (DD2 5DA), Scotland Ellen DeGeneres Womens Laddie Loafer QiTwgra

1. Introduction

polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of C, C, and C chain lengths having up to six ethylenic bonds are part of the human diet. They are formed during heat treatments such as deodorization of vegetable or fish oils [1] or during frying operations [2]. This process tends to cause isomerization of double bonds without changing their positions to a significant extent. Some polyunsaturated fatty acids are also from natural origins such as those containing conjugated double bonds or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). This short review will only deal with polyunsaturated fatty acids having methylene-interrupted double bonds as information on CLA can be found elsewhere on the site .

A nutritional intervention carried out on human has shown that, like the monounsaturated fatty acids, some of the -PUFA may have an effect on lipoprotein metabolism [3]. It is therefore very important to detect and quantify them in food products. This brief review will describe the two main approaches, gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (together with chemical degradative techniques) used to analyse polyunsaturated fatty acids in food products.

2. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

Isomers of linoleic and α-linolenic acids

The three geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, namely 9,12-18:2, 9,12-18:2 and 9,12-18:2, which are very often present in refined, unhydrogenated liquid vegetable oils, are readily separated in the order stated on capillary columns coated with polar cyanosilicone. The four common geometric isomers of α-linolenic acid, i.e., 9,12,15-18:3, 9,12,15-18:3, 9,12,15-18:3 and 9,12,15-18:3, which are also very often present in refined liquid vegetable oils, give peaks that can be readily recognized in GC analyses on cyanosilicone capillary columns, and they are eluted from the column in order stated above ( Fig. 1 ) [4,5].

The 18:2 isomer group of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils may contain up to 15 other 18:2 isomers. The identification of these is difficult, because suitable commercial standards are not available, except for 9,12-18:2, 9,12-18:2 and 9,12-18:2. However, these are the isomers most often encountered and their elution patterns have been established for SP-2560 and CP-Sil 88 columns. In general, such isomers elute in the order < < followed by . We will not extend discussion on this subject because of the efforts made by the industry to reduce the amount of partially hydrogenated oil in human diet. However, pertinent information has been published [6].

Even greater care must be taken when analysing the 18:3 isomers present in some refined vegetable oils. 11-Eicosenoic acid (11-20:1) is a natural monounsaturated fatty acid present in appreciable amounts in some vegetable oils, such as peanut oil and canola oil. Animal fats, especially lard, also contain this fatty acid but at lower levels. The 11-20:1 elutes in the 18:3 region of the chromatogram and its relative retention time with respect to the 18:3 varies with the column temperature. Depending on the temperature of the column, it may elute before, with or after α-linolenic acid (9,12,15-18:3). Therefore, an understanding of these variations is critical for the correct identifications of all the peaks in the 18:3 region of the chromatogram and for achieving correct fatty acid compositional data (for details see [5,7]).

Isomers of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

Studies carried out on the development of analytical methods for identifying and quantifying polyunsaturated fatty acids with 5 or 6 ethylenic bonds are rather scarce and literature on the subject is limited [8-11]. In one study [8], isomers of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6-3) acids were prepared by isomerization with -toluenesulfinic acid and the isomers fractionated by silver ion HPLC in order to have pure fractions of mono- and di- isomers. BPX-70 columns seem to have a more suitable selectivity for the analysis of EPA and DHA isomers compared to SP-2560. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) phases may also be used to analyse isomers of long-chain PUFA in fish oil concentrates only if 22:0 and 22:1 are not present in significant amounts [9].

Two-dimensional fatty acid retention indices (for calculation see ref. 12) were found suitable and better than equivalent chain-length (ECL) values for identification of geometry in these polyunsaturated fatty acids [8].

Quantification of geometrical isomers of highly unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA is a complex issue considering the number of components and isomers that may result from a heat treatment [10]. A validated method was recently published by Fournier . [11] to quantify low amounts of geometrical isomers of EPA and DHA in refined fish oils. It consists of converting the fish oil in to methyl esters and then analysing these by GC on a 100 m CP-Sil 88 column using a temperature programming method and hydrogen as the carrier gas. The elution of the EPA and DHA geometrical isomers present in a fish oil deodorized at 220°C is presented in Figure 2 . The only drawback of such an analysis is the co-elution of a minor mono- isomer of DHA and all- DHA. However, for samples containing low levels of isomers this led to an underestimation of about 10%, which is within the magnitude of uncertainty of the method.

3. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

For definitive identification of polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is necessary that they are each isolated in sufficient amount and purity for chemical characterization. Although silver ion TLC is useful for obtaining a total -18:3 fraction from isomerized oils [13], HPLC in the silver ion mode appears to be the most useful micropreparative method for isolation of individual isomers, as illustrated in Figure 3 for α-linolenic acid [14].

The all-isomer eluted first, followed by each of the di- isomers, then the mono- isomers and finally all--18:3. Similar results were obtained by Adlof, who was also able to resolve 15 of the 16 possible -isomers from arachidonate in the form of the methyl esters on a Chromspher Lipids column with hexane-acetonitrile (98.5:1.5, v/v) as mobile phase [15]. Later, Mjøs was able to separate methyl esters of isomerized EPA and DHA into groups according to the number of double bonds, although individual isomers were not resolved [8].

4. Position of a Double Bond in a Fatty Acid Chain

Determination of the position of a double bond on the carbon chain is a complex procedure ( Fig. 4 ), which involves a combination of partial hydrogenation of the purified fatty acid, isolation of the resulting monoenes and separation into and fractions by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography or HPLC, and subsequent analysis of each fraction by GC coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR) and by GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives.

Partial hydrogenation of the unknown polyunsaturated fatty acid is a critical step, which is usually carried out using hydrazine reduction as described by Ratnayake [16]. From a fatty acid having 3 double bonds, hydrazine reduction will give a mixture of the saturated fatty acid, 3 monoenes, 3 dienes and some unreacted fatty acid. As the hydrogenation takes place without modification of the position or the geometry of the original double bond, the double bonds in the three monoenes will be representative of the true positions. Consequently, structure elucidation is carried out on the monoenes. While the position of each ethylenic bond is given by GC-MS, the geometry of each double bond can be confirmed by GC-FTIR, although the elution characteristics on silver ion chromatography are usually a reliable guide.


Figure 1 . The 18:2 (left) and 18:3 (right) regions of a GC chromatogram of FAMEs from a refined canola oil sample analysed using a SP-2560 capillary column (100 m × 0.25-mm I.D. × 20 μm film thickness), operated isothermally at 180°C. Hydrogen carrier gas, flow rate 1 mL/min.